The Tricks of Spanish Film (Part I)

Before we put down the old structures we need to know how they operate. Spain’s film production is based on public money. No discussion about it. The law established an AUTOMATIC subsidy of 33% of the “producer’s investment”. Not bad! No, especially if the concept is so elastic to include the money the television stations are obliged to invest in Spanish/European movies (5% of their total income).

But first, some concepts clear:
a) AUTOMATIC SUBSIDY means that even if the film makes a ridiculous box office, let’s say 100,000 Euros it may receive 1,200,000 Euros in subsidies about 2 years from the commercial release. It’s really automatic!

b) European norms, extremely enforced in Spain, demands that all channels buy Antenna Rights from local producers summing up 5% of their gross income. That is a tonne of money and the producers’ line up for that. The antenna right means they will exhibit free 2 years after commercial release as many times they wish. It can be prime time (rarely) or 2 a.m. (most common).

c) The public televisions (strong everywhere in Europe) pay between 200,000 Euros to 2,000,000 Euros per film. Sometimes, when the product is “hot” the price can go higher than that.

So, the 33% is advanced in the banks because it bears the State of Spain as guarantor and the money of the television, payable only when the film is delivered is also acceptable collateral for the banks. BUDGET COVERED. Nobody ever invest 1 Euro out of their pockets. Got that? Once this is understood, we can move further and look at official results in the page of the Ministry of Culture of Spain at the following address.

Spanish Film Festival

We can see the results in it, the number of spectators in the movie theatres, who distributed it, the public and private TV channels who bought the antenna rights. All this information is public for anyone. The hidden information is the budget of each film. Only available if a judge authorizes! All the producers alliance want to avoid in order to close any web page they dislike.

 

But let’s consider that every one of the films I picked here as examples had an average budget of 1 million Euros. That’s low as you can get and the results a national shame.

Film: A RAS DE SUELO (2005)

* Spectators: 76
Gross Box Office Results in Spain: 392,10 €
* Distributor by: FAUSTO PRODUCCIONES, SL

With the support of: TELEVISIÓ DE CATALUNYA, S.A.
TVV TELEVISIÓ VALENCIANA

Film: MARIPOSA NEGRA

Producer: FAUSTO PRODUCCIONES, SL
Distributor: SHERLOCK FILMS SL
Spectators: 5.062
Gross Box Office Results in Spain: 23.512,95 €

Film: Faltas Leves

• Producers:
DACSA PRODUCCIONS, S.L.
STEINWEG EMOTION PICTURES, S.L.
• Con la participación de: RTVV;CANAL SUR; EITB; TV CANARIA; TELEMADRID
Distributor: COMPAÑIA PREMIUM DE VIDEO Y TV,S.L.

Spectators: 2.785
Gross Box Office Results in Spain: 9.907,40 €

Film: Mucha Sangre

# Producer: MASSA D’OR PRODUCCIONS, S.L. (www.massador.com)
# Con la participación de: TVE, S.A. and VÍA DIGITAL

Spectators: 6.595
Gross Box Office Results in Spain: 27.238,75 €

Film: De niños
Producer:
MASSA D’OR PRODUCCIONS, S.L. (www.massador.com)

# With the support of: TV3 TELEVISIÓ DE CATALUNYA
LA SEPT ARTE (Francia) and TELEVISIÓN ESPAÑOLA (TVE)

Distributor: ALTA FILMS S.A.
Spectators: 17.885
Gross Box Office Results in Spain: 66.490,20 €

But aren’t there minimums to achieve in order to get the subsidies? Yes, on paper there are many rules. The last producing company here above listed has never, ever made its goals but always got it all it needed. To complete, the head of the company, a radical Catalonian separatist is preparing a film which roughly can be translated to” Catalonia against Spain = Spain against Catalonia”. Famous for her hatred and xenophobic discourse we can wait for a “wonderful” piece of inflammatory and disgraceful “patriotic” film. Paid with public money. For who is not acquainted with Spanish history, Catalonia is an autonomous region of Spain but part of Spain. There is a small minority of racists who preach intolerance and separation of the rest of the country. This person, strangely enough, was in the grace of the right-wing Government in Madrid from 1996 to 2003, and then she moved her political ideals elsewhere.
By the rules, these and the absolute majority of film companies would be shut down by now but depending of the governments and sympathies they always re-float. All with public money. And observing their madness over the new medias (read here INTERNET) the issue for them is not to be “pirated”, nobody wants their movies anyway. The issue is that facts as related here come to light.
Sorry guys from the legacy times! I didn’t die and I this will still go on. ( to be continued)

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Civil Rights X Copyright: Non Negotiable!

Traitor, ungrateful, miserable, bastard, etc. Those were a few names I was called since I decided to make public my positions regarding the on going “battle” between copyright warriors and digital libertarians. I guess many people got it very wrong from the start. The “libertarians” have written a Manifest and I support it without reserves.

What is being played here is something much deeper than a “cat chasing the mouse” fight in a small country like Spain that I guess more than half of humanity ignores where it is and a much larger percentage the history it carries back for more than 2,000 years. Yeah, two millenniums but cutting to the chase: back in 1936 a coup d’etat started a civil war in the country and Europe and the rest of the world turned their backs. It was Spain and it was not their problems. Thirty nine years of bloody dictatorship followed those events. Currently, Spain can and probably will be played as a “game-scenario” for the worst case scenario again. In 1936, Germany and Italy supported the fascists and bombarded the civil population in such bloodshed until then unknown by humankind. When in 1939, Hitler spread the fire through Europe and the world, the main powers already knew what to expect.

Guernica

Guernica by Pablo Picasso

After working many years in the entertainment industry, in many different positions, and also selling my blood for small (independent) companies in an idealistic stupid way, I gathered enough knowledge of all the tricks that can be played by every single player of the game in film and music productions: from the writer to the distributor, passing thru the producer and directors reaching down the secretary of production. I never saw a positive liquidation (final accounts where the remaining “profits” should hypothetically be paid to the producer), never at all! Even if there were cents left, the producing company would still “owe” the distributors. If there were profits, they would fall into expenses accounts and future developments. No profit, no income taxes to be paid. Reset to zero and everybody continued to be friends as always. That’s how the game is played. Producers feed writers and directors with bread crumbs, paying their mortgages, buying groceries and so they are on the leash and “grateful”. Buyers of TV stations are invited by producers to banquets, vacations in the Riviera and receive generous incentives such as loads of champagne boxes as Christmas gifts (totally legal) to allocate their resources to those friendly producers in their circle. The so acclaimed high level employment that the entertainment industry, specially film bring to the economy in general averages 4 to 5 employees (sometimes including the owner of the joint) earning 1,200 Euros per month without legal hours respected (40 hours/week in Spain) They should be “happy” because they are in their way to the glory. That’s their due to be paid to the industry before gaining the right to “really do something”. All the rest, when the subsidies fall in place, and when the TV purchases also combine, out they go hiring. There is literally an army of desperate people out there to get two months salaries (average production time). And they all fly in as mosquitoes in the jungle. It is marvellous to see and sad to realize that they also live out of dreams. That is to be respected, to live by a dream and side line with starvation the remaining half of the year.

Europe

This is Spanish, French, Italian and almost all Europe’s reality, let alone the US where I have friends earning the same since 1991, yes, correct, 18 years ago and the same weekly pay. This is only possible in Europe because there are special “social cushions” where the mass, the people who really make the film, can fall back in the work insurances and not turn into homelessness. This is the truth and I dare anyone to proof me the opposite hiring an independent research firm without conflicting interests in these industries.

So you should be guessing why am I “betraying” my people. What is my interest in that? My answer is: I want to see different people, new talent, new ideas springing and new ways of doing business. The mediocrity is produced by a system which was profitable until the means of reproduction were scarce. I loved to see what Arin Crumley did with “Four Eyed Monster” and hated when 10 days before principal photography my film had to be cancelled because one co-producer decided she was making me a favour co-signing the deal (allowing with that to advance the subsidies) and ordered me to relinquish all my rights to her. It was a brutal, it was stealing and it was a rape but I was strong enough to resist it and send her to hell. My film was not done but I look forward to the future and she looks to the gifts she must to give the local TV station managers these Holidays. I guess I’m better of than she is. Ever and forever! I play for the future and the rest struggle to retain petty privileges.

I guess talent is to be nurtured, embraced, and cared for. Italy had one of the most vibrant filmmaking scenes of the entire world and is reduced to rubble. One Italian actor told me once: “The old ones, as brilliant as they were, didn’t allow space for a new generation and now we have mediocrity or rare exceptions”. That is not the future I want for Spain, for Europe and as a matter of fact for nowhere.

Digital have changed the scenario forever and there is no coming back. They, “artists” have the social cushion where to fall (and some have multimillions in banks and property); let them lay in peace there. It’s not acceptable to even discuss neither negotiate civil rights giving in to the defence of copyright. Let alone when the copyrighted material was paid with public money. The architect charges the project of a bridge, he is paid by the government or whoever, but he doesn’t retain the right to charge everybody who crosses that bridge. Point Period. It’s also a given that nobody can copy the project, construct the same bridge design elsewhere and say it is their own creation. The right to have your credits in the making of a film, music or theatre play are not in discussion. Your merit was to create them and you were paid for it. You screenwriters and directors: how many of you begged producers to give you a chance? How many of you waived salaries? Give me a break! If anyone copy the authorship of my writing and publish it without even naming me, I will sue in the courts of law. If my name is mentioned, please go ahead! You are welcome to reproduce anywhere! Creative Commons, some rights reserved, namely authorship is reserved. Reproduction? Do it yourself with some clicks!

What about music then? Music Companies paid dearly radio stations, TV programmers, etc. to play your music in order to have your music reaching the public. That was also the reality. Just a few years ago. So, let’s drop the masks! Kids would win a luxury car; the multinational would make tonnes of money.

And in the most physical side of the matter: it is not possible to control what you are doing thru your broadband. Simply as that! The USA has developed and distributed sophisticated software which scrambles outgoing and incoming IP address to give away to Iranian people surpass the censorship of the Ayatollah’s. The only way around, and even so, it would be hard as hell, would be a Chinese cyber patrol model.

Civil Rights Movement

NON NEGOTIABLE CIVIL RIGHTS

So, my friends, Sarkozy did whatever he pleased (except place the “Prince” in the EPAD) and people talked but didn’t care too much about the Hadopi. Anyway there is a way around. Good and dearly respected French friends of mine have written that response to me these last days and made me reflect why the Spaniards are so different: because the mere idea of the government censoring our acts is beyond any acceptance. The memoir of the dictatorship is in the DNA perhaps and we cannot trade the civil rights for an obsolete copyright law, flawed from the beginning to the end. Again, Spain is a laboratory of freedom in Europe. Hopefully this time, people will join us and take this task as if it was the defeat of the National Socialism 70 years ago and not turn their backs in indifference. What happens here, if successful, will spread. At least in Europe and Latin America; such a proposal in the USA, well… that is for another book.

Internet is burning in Spain (and the government too)

Prime Minister Zapatero was the first elect government back in 2004 as a direct consequence of the new technologies (internet and SMS’s) and risks to be the first to lose the government if he doesn’t back out the pretension of adopting a repressive policy against internet downloads.

Spain's Prime Minister Zapatero

To start, we have a millionaire industry where artists live in Hollywood style palaces that causes no pity in the general populace. Second, in Spain, P2P is not illegal: everybody pays on purchase of any blank DVD, CD, Ipod, laptop, or whatever electronic device a “canon” (tax) that goes to feed the multimillion arches of the author’s collection agencies. Third: piracy is to copy and sell the works of others. That is not the case here, the right to copy was acquired once you paid for the copying/media device.

But, blind to the fact that about 75% of the population is connected to the Internet and out of these 80% download products for their own consumption, the government decided to “slip” into a general economic law to combat the recession, instruments which wash away the role of the courts of law and transfer such powers to the Ministry of Culture commanded by a representative of the old filmmaker’s union the right to cut connections and web sites if they considered fit to do so.

Copyright’s laws must to be totally reformulated. It’s unconceivable that the “property” remains the authors “property” 70/80 after his/her own death. It is also immoral and outrageous that in Europe and other countries where films are basically paid of with public money remain as a private property.

The consequences of such acts were swift: in 6 hours 58.000 blogs in Spain where raised against it and within 24 hours more than 1 million pages reflected the issue according to Google.

Today, the government (Ministry of (in) Culture) called the most influential figures of Spanish internet spheres to “discuss” the issue. González-Sinde, the Minister of (in) Culture abandoned the meeting in the middle of it.

Ministers of the Socialist Government of Spain

She must go immediately and a serious discussion about copyright extent must to be carried out in Europe and in the whole world. The beds are burning and we won’t stay passively waiting repressive laws in the style of the disgraceful Hadopi’s law in neighbouring France.

Online Content Production: the law of silence

While pushing forward the endeavour of gathering information from all sources to follow the series of articles relating to State provided subsidies, I have tumbled against a wall made out of tough steel and concrete: silence. If was my purpose to question policy makers, directors of audiovisual institutions, institutes of cinematography as well as filmmakers, directors, producers, distributors, actors, etc .etc.

The task would not be easy to start; I suspected that already, but with rare exceptions I was rebuffed as if I were a thief or at least a poisonous threat to the status quo of their jobs and life earnings. Without going further naming names, Cultural Authorities of different European States and Latin American countries, after reading (or not) this small blog, simply denied flatly to give any sort of interview by email, phone or whatever means offered. The position is that the law is the law and questioning these laws is unlawful. Waving the flag of the law as if those had no relation whatsoever to the reality and fairness to the people. I have to remind these ladies and gentlemen that once upon a time, slavery was also lawful and it was unlawful to question it. Would anyone dare to do it now?

Few producers came forward (some of them bravely offering to make their names and positions public) but yet, the absolutely majority simply would not discuss the issues of digital distribution, subsidies for online production and the new reality of content production for the Internet (broadband) era. No interest for pretty obvious reasons.

But why all the fear and self imposed law of silence? What evil can be brought upon humanity to talk about what is already reality, a given fact?

In order to clarify the situation, to open a call for all the interested parts to answer questions the society itself is posing and the public authorities and the others refusing to answer, I’ve decided to make public the questions I sent to them. Four simple questions that remain without answers:

1) Considering that the numbers of online viewers of audiovisual contents multiply, at least, ten times the number of movie theatres audiences in each and every country, is it fair to have the State (which should represent the interests of the people) subsidise film productions with a non-negotiable condition that the films shall be presented and released in movie theatres?

2) Why do you insist to impose criteria that are not up-to-date with the public’s interests ignoring their own culture consumption habits?

3) While audiovisual works available for free to all users are ignored by the public authorities and denied subsidies while audiovisual works intended for theatre or TV releases which constitute under all lights the construction of private propriety (copyright and commercial exploitation) with public funds- continues to be hailed by the state cultural authorities as the only valid option. Don’t you plan to revaluate this unfair situation and leverage to the real world situation of the cultural consumers of your respective countries introducing a fair system of public subsidies?

4) The public has the right to decide when, how and which cultural product wish to use. And in fact, they have done it already. Don’t you consider that the public funds spent in cultural production must reflect the public demand? And given that situation, leverage the social players in fairness, namely the creators/authors/producers of online content?

It is absolutely comprehensible that people will ignore reality as far as they see it possible in order to keep their own status and privileges. My question is: until when will possible to remain in denial?

Until "revolution" arrives…the paradise of subsidies

As I said clearly before I don’t believe in any revolution let alone in the global kingdom of inflated egos. It is not the nature of the beast to eat its own guts and everybody can rest in peace about it: filmmakers, actors, producers and all the involved in the entertainment business won’t suicide as they see revenues dropping and sinking bellow the red mark, way bellow. At least in all the countries where subsidies are in place, the ball will keeping going. The game is too good to quit and they will fight it fiercely,  with bravery and stop at no ethical limits (the large majority at least) even if that includes censorship.

My intention here is to map as extensively as possible the production of film around the world with a special emphasis over the subsidized countries.  The US has its own set of rules, small state funded incentives, etc.etc. and for the purpose of this series of articles is simply not fun to drag its dirty out yet. Not yet.

BRAZIL

Honoring the country which saw me coming to this world, I shall start with Brazil.  Yeah, I am Brazilian by birth (European National by option). Not equal, nobody in Brazil is born equal to anything (the law? no, specially not equal to the law) … Not easy, in the country easy is seen as weak so everybody poses a nasty attitude to life in general and to their “social-inferior-peers” in particular… AND everybody feels they have the supreme right to have all the benefits in the world, existent and to be invented, on all medias and in the whole universe. To whom is used to the language used in distribution rights contracts, doesn’t it sound terribly familiar?

That said I need to clarify somethings to the newcomers to the “Brazilian kingdom”. The country has a huge media oligopoly in place for the past 44 years called nothing less than GLOBO (globe) which produces an enormous amount of daily soap operas (four hours a day x 4 different shows x 6 days per week) and that is enough to keep an army of combatant soldiers (artists), well paid and living the glory of nationwide fame, happy and smiling all day long. To portrait the whole scenario would take a book and that is not the purpose of these articles so, keeping it short, they can have a mediocre production with some excellent talent but there is a huge fiction-drama production taking place in the country.

The GLOBO organizations (the media empire spreads to cable channels, newspapers, magazines, radio stations, cable networks, music publishing, etc.etc) were raised to a predominant position by the military dictatorship in the 60’s and never declined ever since.  The military regime went down but they kept their stake and pawns over the country, supporting rebrand right-wing politicians in a fake democratic state. Currently they support the center left government of Lula. Even if they say they do not support it, they do. It is their nature: always standing behind the factual powers.  And their dominant position has made that they bred inner-house talent, shaped to their aesthetic standards for generations (not unusual to find three generations of the same family working in the same company’s department) and that has spilled over to several other art forms: the cinema is made by the same actors and a great number of screenwriters and directors; the theatre is dominated by the same actors of the soap-operas; the music heard on the radio waves is the soundtrack of their programming, etc.etc. The “Global Production Standard”  which encompass a standardized mix of key elements such as same lighting, art direction, costume designers, set designers and 99% of poor camera angles composing the lower spectrum of visual (de) effects to keep audiences’ success and with rare exceptions is almost always the certainty of a mediocre product.

To further understand the GLOBO system is necessary to clarify that even the communists and left-wingers were incorporated and assimilated by the predominant standard. Exceptions can be counted within two hands, maximum.

Yet, as an oligopoly there was no need to invest in feature films neither there was a legal obligation to do so, as it is the case in many European countries. When the GLOBO organizations raised Mr. Collor de Mello to the presidency of the nation, he called to an abrupt end of the state funded film organism (Embrafilme) and the small feature film production halted completely. From 1990 to 1994 no long feature film was produced in the country.

The demand for financial instruments able to finance a film industry was always a major drag for the cultural elites and the government had in place an instrument that in fact was quite successful to reach the small goals of those “brilliant minds”: tax exemption for companies investing in film productions. Slowly but surely, the system started to work out.

The basics of it are: a director/writer comes up with a project. Usually they are not alone and have producers attached which will package the project, attach the talent (Globo actors) and register the project with the state organization for clearance (i.e. authorization to raise money). The project is then filed in the Stock Exchange (yeah, never underestimate the capacity for grandeur that the Brazilian elite’s have!) and then out they go for the money hunt. After that, it is all up to the Marketing Manager of big corporations to decide according to their own agenda’s which film to support or not.

BUT, and there is always a big but, the “investing” companies will not invest the so-called “good money”. Nay, nay!!! They will “invest” bad money, rotten money and whatever other disgusting name they come up with in the production of film or theatre or a ballet. It’s the same from the marketing director’s perspective and the money leaves from the same pot: the corporate taxes due to the nation’s Treasure. Needless to say there is no investment whatsoever. They take up to 4% of the corporate due tax and put it in one, two, how many productions they see fit and that amount is levied by the Treasure Department. So, every single production in the country departs fully paid even before pre-production. There is no risk attached to the producers, writers and directors. All salaries paid in full at rates that when compared to the European films are quite high. If a director writes and also produces the film (not unusual at all) the net profit of this “artist” is often 30% of the entire budget. Average budget of Brazilian features? Currently averages US$ 4 million. Some reach 8/10 million US dollars. Basically it’s all ” Global Production Standard” values. Not too different from  watching a soap-opera episode but in the “magical dark room” in a brand new Multiplex Cinemark. Rare exceptions, mediocrity is the standard.

If the film fails flatly in the box office? Who loses it? Nobody. It’s fully paid. Paid by the Brazilian State and ultimately by the Brazilian poor population who does not have health care, nor decent public services let alone the right to complain about another gigantic inequality of the rich up and coming world power player championed by the blue-collar president.

It’s worth to remark that the former Minister of Culture, singer Gilberto Gil, has received also subsidy money shortly after leaving the ministry for more than US$ 200,00 guess for what? To produce his music DVD! If Caetano Veloso wants to make a show with tickets costing US$ 100 per head, he demands subsidies as well. If any problems or complaints arise from the fact that one of the richest singers in the country gets subsidies, he himself will call the seating Minister of Culture and the rules will bend to accomodate his needs.

Is there any strategy in the works regarding the digital “revolution”? Yeah, Walkiria Barbosa, director of Festival do Rio has recently declared that it’s necessary to combine “education + punishment + alternatives”. As an old school Stalinist,  she has it all squared out. She and all the rest! To talk about the real alternatives in Brazil is to cast yourself out of the picture, I know! I’m doing it as I write these pages. Don’t think outside the dark room with a projector running a 35 mm print otherwise you are not cultivated enough at best. If it comes to worst you are a criminal and point period. End of discussion. Someone will find a way to punish you.

AT THE END OF THE DAY, it is an investment, done by a legal entity into another legal entity. If the product is good and has returns, the “investor” will receive the principal plus profits. The taxes the company owed? Forget it, nobody will ever recall that minor detail, for god’s sake!

Woody Allen and Rio

The bad news? It is all reserved to Brazilian nationals but if you are Woody Allen governments will line up to pay for your production. Bastardy is a highly appraised art in the country.

A patient time before revolution

After many years of floating adrift in the realm of media producers and other parasites of the kind, many authors have decided to break free from the system and do something with their lives. Many have simply changed profession. My case is a different ball and I cannot and I refuse to give up a lifetime of struggle because shortsighted people are in power in the cultural industry. No, I won’t give in and if I go down, I will go down fighting.

No matter where, and in fact I believe that borders are pretty worthless when we talk about cultural production and distribution, the old traditional media is leaking thru the seams and patches aren’t effective in order to keep the established rules in place.

The European Union has cleared the way to repression of the Internet thru article 138 which basically trashes the justice system to shreds: no need for court orders to punish “bad” citizens who download illegal materials. Sarkozy and other little men will be hands-free to punish. Their ego inflates but reality is quite nasty to show that unless they set up a real repressive system as there is in China and Iran (look to whom the European governments must to look for inspiration!!!) all these efforts will be in vain.  Almost at the same time, the US government has repealed the right-wing initiatives to force Internet control.

I have watched an interview of the Chilean-Spanish filmmaker Alejandro Amenabar in Radio Cable where he said interesting things: a) it is impossible to win against zero! b) the internet appears in the XXI century as the Christians appeared in the beginning of the first millenium as a genuine revolutionary force. c) Internet must the regulated in order to half a dozen filmmakers as himself continue to be able to produce 50 million euros budgeted movies (italic are textual citation from Mr. Amenabar). Quite interesting to see and hear that man defending without any sort of shame or embarrassment the inequity and mostly the absurd “Internet regulation” which he claims to be a necessity for films like  his delirious production which cannot be paid off ever in the European market but which he considers a necessity to the world and a right he has acquired.

So what are we talking about now? Revolution? I thought those small chats were left  after 20 years of the fall of the Berlin wall but it seems that analogies are being made with the ancient Christians overthrow of the Roman Empire!!!! That’s is amazing and revealing light at the same time. Hollywood majors and a bunch of Euro-filmmakers who aspire stardom at any cost have forgotten their historical differences and joined forces with the North-American right-wing, with the Republicans, with the European most autocratic governments, all them in a crusade against the “infidels”, thieves as the authors’ societies in Europe call downloaders.  That only brings to my mind that when all irreconciables enemies join forces it’s because the war is 100% lost.

What happens next then? It seems that all the options are fair when no option is taken. Certainly we are not going to see the end of times (if the end of times come we will be dead anyway and it won’t matter any longer), film and television will continue to exist as theatre and ballet didn’t die because of cinema and later on cinema survived video and DVD. There will be always a public for that media. But the truth of the matter is that currently all the studios are mad as hell and established authors also is not because film is dying. Film is not dying! The DVD market, the home market is terminally ill. No Hollywood blockbusters paid itself with 35mm prints released. Not since the 1970’s! It was all paid by video and later by DVDs rentals and sales. Digital medias, virtually cost-free medias today. So, please ladies and gentlemen! Quit screaming about film (movie theatres) and talk the name of the game: money making. DVD sales. DVD rentals. Digital media. Copyright.

This short video illustrates perfectly the new paradigma the entertainment industry faces.

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